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Argumentative Essay

Should parents be held responsible for the crimes of their children?

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Even though against parents expectations, it is common that children would engage in criminal activities but of different intensities. While young children are engaged in less serious crimes including physical fights with peer, skipping school, and bullying friends, teenagers are involved in more serious criminal activities such as underage drinking and associated crimes including drunk driving and unprotected sex, abuse of illegal drugs, and vandalism. Further, older adolescents carry out more serious crimes such as breaking to other people’s premises, more serious bullying, murder, and rape. Usually, people under the legal age are considered the responsibility of their parents (National Research Council, ‎Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education & ‎Committee on Law and Justice, 2013). Since they are still developing cognitively, young children are unable to make informed decisions. This explains why they cannot be tried in the same court of law and using the same legal process as adults. It is therefore the responsibility of parents to instill the right values in their children. This way, parents would help children differentiate the right from wrong. Even though parents play a huge role in bringing up their children, they should not be blamed for the crimes committed by their children.

It is notable that assuming the responsibility of their mistakes, parents would be encouraging their children to make mistakes they will never be blamed for. Nonetheless, based on the teaching they get from their parents, they are reasonable and thus aware of the mistakes they are making. When breaking into shops, abusing others, abusing drugs, and committing rape or murder, minors are aware that they are not meeting their parents’ expectations. This is the reason they cannot commit these crimes in the presence of their parents. In fact, when the news reaches their parents, they deny it because they know it is wrong (Solomon, 2012). By hiding their wrong mistakes from their parents, minors are aware that they are making mistakes and thus should be punished.

As explained by Siegel (2014), children should be held responsible for their crimes (and not their parents) in order to learn from these mistakes and change. Once punished, it is expected that in order to avoid a similar punishment in the future, children would change their criminal ways. Additionally, punishing children for their crimes would act as a way of teaching other children to avoid criminal behaviors. Further, punishing parents for children mistakes would only encourage them to commit more crimes and if possible, engage in more serious criminal activities. Punishing children would also be playing the role of the society in which children are helped to grow in the right path. This is because no parent wants children to grow up as criminals.

While children should be blamed for their criminal activities, Siegel (2014) notes that parents should be held responsible for some of their children’s crimes. Some of these are computer crimes, violating curfew, and damaging property. This is because parents have control of their children online activities and need to help them manage their time. This explains why parents should be answerable to the law for crimes committed by children at late hours of the night since they should be in control of their children. Parents should also be answerable when minors engage in cyber bullying or production or viewing of pornographic materials since they are the ones providing these technological devices to their children and failing to control their use.

Even though parents should monitor the ways of their children, this does not mean that they should be punished for the criminal activities of minors. This is because failing to punish minors would encourage them to engage in criminal activities without caring. While parents should control time and use of technological devices by their children, children would still remain responsible for their crimes. This is the reason there are juvenile courts.

 

 

References

National Research Council, ‎Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, & ‎Committee on Law and Justice. (2013). Reforming juvenile justice: Developmental approach. Washington: National Academies Press.

Siegel, Nathan. Should Parents be Legally Responsible for Children’s Serious Crimes? 2014. Web. <https://www.npr.org/2014/12/16/371264533/should-parents-be-legally-responsible-for-childrens-serious-crimes>

Solomon, A. (2012). Far from the tree: Parents, children and the search for identity. London: Simon and Schuster.

   

     

 

 

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Research Methods-Experiment

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There are various research methods that a scholar can employ in order to carry out his study and present the information attained through a way that can be understood by the targeted audience. The methods used can be analyzed using either quantitative or qualitative methods depending on the details that the scholar wishes to attain. Quantitative research that involves the use of numerical values to present data that has been taken during the research while qualitative method is basically keen on providing comprehensive and detailed information concerning the question being investigated (Lune & Berg, 2016). depending on the information that the scholar has such that determines the method of analysis in that when he already knows the hypothesis that he has to investigate, he uses quantitative method while for qualitative analysis he understands the hypothesis as he progresses.

This article focuses on the use of experiment as a method of research that is used in various fields to determine the effectiveness of certain methodologies. During an experiment, the researcher finds gets a sample that is randomly selected and is used to represent the entire population. This is them put in various groups whereby one group is exposed to the item that is being investigated while the other is termed as the control group that is used in comparison and its main purpose is to determine whether the aspect under investigation has worked (Kowalczyk, 2017). It is of paramount importance to note that due to ethical issues that are associated with the exposure of the control group into unfavorable conditions, it is advisable that this group is exposed to situations that do not harm their livelihood.

This can be illustrated by a scholar determining the effect of using warm IV fluids in reduction of hypothermia to pregnant women undergoing selective caesarian section.  Normally, since these women are opened up during birth, it is likely that they would get cold and start shivering which can lead to adverse effects that need to be controlled. A researcher doing this experiment would need to get a sample size that would give high degree of accuracy thus it is advisable tat the size is big enough to represent the entire population (Imafuku et al., 2015). Further, the women should not be coerced into caesarian section hence those picked should be allowed to decide on their own. Additionally, in as much as the study is to determine the reduction of hypothermia through the use of warm IV fluids, the control group should not be left without any form of remedy as this would affect their health.

During the experiment, the scholar can choose to collect data using questionnaires that have either open-ended or closed questions, interviews, or observations depending on the time that he has set for the study. As has been mentioned, the collection of data in the quantitative method is easier and quicker as opposed to the qualitative approach that takes time although it provides richer information through its methodology. The information can then be analyzed using statistical methods such as chi-square so that he can get the mean, mode, median, standard variation, or variance which gives a distribution of the information providing the scholar with the proof of the hypothesis he set to study (Chu & Ke, 2017). Conversely, if the data was in qualitative design, the scholar has to give a detailed report of his findings. Although experiments take up much time and resources they are beneficial since they provide an insight on the question being investigated and provide solutions to phenomena happening in the current world.

 

 

References

Chu, H., & Ke, Q. (2017). Research methods: What's in the name?. Library & Information           Science Research, 39(4), 284-294.

Imafuku, R., Saiki, T., Kawakami, C., & Suzuki, Y. (2015). How do students' perceptions of        research and approaches to learning change in undergraduate research?. International    journal of medical education, 6, 47.

Kowalczyk, A. (2017). Economic and logistic research methods. World Scientific News, 72, 544- 549.

Lune, H., & Berg, B. L. (2016). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Pearson      Higher Ed.

 

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Philosophy of Nursing Statement/Essay

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Philosophy of nursing is based on the ability of a medical practitioner to provide empathetic, competent, optimal, holistic and compassionate care to people that require it to the best of his ability. This implies that the practitioner is expected to have passion for his work so that he can respectfully carry out his duties that include not only treating them but helping them understand their medical conditions without judging them but guiding them with maximal understanding and confidentiality (McSherry et al., 2016).  One of the most important values that should be upheld is the ability to gain trust from the patient such that he (patient) can confidently discuss his background and other necessary information that would help the nurse in providing care. The nurse in this case needs to pursue higher education that would assist him gain more professional knowledge on how to handle these patients and avoid sharing information that belongs to the patient without their consent.

Pursuing a post-master’s degree in psychiatric/mental health nurse practitioner program is paramount in that if provides a platform in which the student nurse can interact wither practicing nurses where they share their experiences, find possible solutions and enhance their understanding of the knowledge attained.  Additionally, research that is carried out in these learning institutions provides the learner with a wealth of information that improves the already acquired knowledge, enhances his skills and allows him to provide quality care (McSherry et al., 2016). Again, it should be noted that further education helps one understand the ethical codes of the American Nurses Association and Joint Commission Standards which has the guidelines that demand every nurse to offer services that are safe, quality and confidential. This is likely to enhance family values and ties and promote disease awareness in the community.

 

 

Reference

McSherry, R., Grimwood, K., & Stubbings, K. (2016). A story of facilitators’ experiences of the excellence in practice accreditation scheme and its influence on quality, dignity and    respect. Stories of Dignity within Healthcare: Research, narratives and theories, 169.

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Article Critique: Counseling transgender college students: Perceptions of college mental health clinicians’ preparedness

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Article Critique: Counseling Transgender College Students: Perceptions of College Mental Health Clinicians’ Preparedness

Abstract

The critique assesses Couture (2017) article, Counseling transgender college students: Perceptions of college mental health clinicians’ preparedness. Participants in the study were college mental health clinicians recruited from a couple of online platforms. The study used a sample of 84 with participants from various age groups, ethnic backgrounds, regions of the U.S., and gender. As a result, the sample was representative of the general population of college counselors. The researcher investigates the perceived level of preparedness in college mental health clinicians in addressing the needs of transgender college students. The study establishes moderate levels of readiness, thus suggesting an improvement of counselor training programs to enhance their competencies in multicultural issues. An understanding of the needs and problems affecting transgender college students is critical to the provision of adequate mental health care to all college students in the United States.


 

Summary

            The article, Counseling transgender college students: Perceptions of college mental health clinicians’ preparedness by Couture investigates the levels of perceived readiness of college mental health clinicians when counseling transgender college learners. Since transgender is considered part of the multicultural population, clinicians require competencies in multicultural counseling to achieve their objectives. In spite of the growing demand for counseling services for the transgender people in the U.S. and other parts of the world, the field is relatively new. Although societal views attitudes and views towards members of the LGBTQ community have improved in the recent past, some states allow mental health clinicians to deny members of the population their services especially if it violates their moral and religious beliefs. As a result, some transgender individuals are unable to access adequate and affordable mental health services.

Nonetheless, college students from the LGBTQ community express higher rates of suicide when compared to peers from regular populations. Being a member of the LGBTQ community is one of the three primary reasons behind college students considering suicide. Accordingly, counselor-training programs have developed strategies to enhance clinicians multicultural competencies hence provide the required services to members of the multicultural population. Improving skills of college counselors dealing with transgender students is critical to the well-being of the minority group given their increasing numbers of almost all parts of the world. Nevertheless, the lack of studies to evaluate college counselors' perceived preparedness to address the needs of transgender college learners has adverse effects on the ability to improve the quality of services. The study aims to highlight some of the challenges college counselors face when dealing with transgender students to find effective ways of boosting their preparedness.

Participants

The researcher used 87 college mental health clinicians to complete a 29-question questionnaire. The scholar placed a request for involvement in a counseling education listserv with more than 3,000 members from various parts of the United States. However, the inclusion criteria required only clinicians working as college counselors to take part in the survey. Further, the study collaborated with the American college counseling association, which has 1,567 members to participate in the research. Eventually, the final sample was 84 college mental clinicians. Out of the 84 respondents, 16 or 19% were male, 67 or 79.8% were female while 1 or 1.2% was identified as other. Moreover, 72 or 85.7% and 6 or 7.1% were Caucasians and African Americans respectively while 2 or 2.4%, 1 or 1.2% and 3 or 3.6% were Asian American, Hispanic and identified as other respectively.   

Measures (Variables)

Information that respondents provided in the study such as race, gender, years of experience, accreditation of the training colleges, and age were the independent variables while the level of preparedness to address the needs of transgender college students was the dependent variable

Procedures

The researcher developed a 29-question questionnaire, which was to be completed by all participants. The survey questions utilized a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 3 with 0 representing not prepared while 3 described better prepared than average. In addition, the research employed a cross-sectional study design to explore trends within the chosen population. According to the author, cross-sectional studies provide valuable information, including behaviors, attitudes, and current skills levels of participants.

Besides, the scholar used the available literature to develop survey items while professionals in the field, such as licensed professional counselors and counselor educators offered additional items to include in the questionnaire. After generating the questionnaire, the scholar conducted a pilot study on a sample of 4 licensed professional counselors to test the format and questions for flow, length, content, and readability. After receiving feedback from the pilot study, the researcher edited the questions and format based on their recommendations. Ultimately, the researcher uploaded the final questionnaire on an online survey software program. The final questionnaire had four subscales, which are “clinical interviewing and assessment skills, counseling ethics, personal and community awareness, and education on transgender issues” (Couture, 2017, p 468). The combination of the four subscales examined the overall preparedness of the participants to serve transgender students.

Results & Discussion

The average perceived preparedness of all participants was M=62.71, SD-14.43 while the minimum and the maximum score were 26 and 87 respectively. The score reveals a moderate level of readiness. Further, the scholar investigated the effects of years of experience on the perceived level of preparedness. However, the study established insignificant effects of experience after controlling for years of experience in counseling. An assessment of the level of perceived preparedness between CACREP and non-CACREP accredited programs established negligible differences. At the same time, after asking the respondents to rate their level of readiness on a scale of 0 to 10, the study determined scores of M=6.29, SD-2.17. Similarly, the score shows a moderate level of overall preparedness. While 83 or 98.80% agreed that counselors are responsible for being knowledgeable on transgender identity issues, the remaining were undecided on the subject.

The findings establish that a significant number of college mental health clinicians believe that they require higher levels of preparedness than they already have to address the needs of transgender students effectively. In addition to being knowledgeable on issues affecting transgender college students, counselors working in college campuses should have an in-depth understanding of the campus climate and the existing support programs. Some of the notable support programs include student affairs organizations, campus housing, and the college counseling center. In situations where the campus does not have such services, counselors should be aware of the available off-campus resources.

The findings show that counselor educators should have an in-depth understanding of the transgender populations to develop training programs that prepare the graduates to excel in their jobs. Besides, existing counselors should share their experiences with their colleagues to highlight the common issues affecting members of the transgender population. Some of the common problems affecting transgender college students include suicide, non-suicidal self-injury, violence, substance abuse, and discrimination. Importantly, counselors should acknowledge that a majority of transgender students do not have familial and parental support because their families reject their choices.

Strengths & Weaknesses of the Research Investigation

The primary strength of the study is the use of primary information from practicing college counselors from all over the United States. The use of current counselors enhances the credibility of the findings as the respondents highlight some of the challenges they face in their everyday work. In reality, college counselors understand the level of preparedness better than anyone else does. Second, the researcher used an electronic survey to reach out to the largest number of respondents at the least cost and possible. Third, the use of a structured questionnaire ensured that respondents did not deviate from the primary objectives of the study.

Nonetheless, the sample size and the timing of the study are some of the leading weaknesses of the research. The use of a sample of 84 means that the results are not generalizable to the college mental health clinicians’ population in the United States. On the other hand, the timing of the study, which was between June 2016 and July 2016 meant that a significant number of would-be respondents were on vacation hence unable to take part in the survey.

Suggestions

In addition to increasing the study sample, future studies on the subject should consider researching during the academic school year. In this way, researchers would have access to a large sample, thus improve the credibility and generalizability of the findings. The primary goal should be benefitting professional counselors and counselor educators by providing evidence-based practices to help transgender of all ages.

 

 

Reference

Couture, V. (2017). Counseling transgender college students: Perceptions of college mental health clinicians’ preparedness. College Student Journal, 51(4), 463–472.

 

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